If you are studying in class 8th then download NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 2 : From Trade to Territory for your exam preparation, Chekrs is providing complete solution of NCERT books.
Chapter 1 Solution: From Trade to Territory
Question 1: Match the following:
Diwani – Tipu Sultan
“Tiger of Mysore” – right to collect land revenue
faujdari – adalat Sepoy
Rani Channamma – criminal court
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sipahi – led an anti-British movement in Kitoor
Diwani = right to collect land revenue
“Tiger of Mysore” = Tipu Sultan
Faujdari = adalat criminal court
Rani Channamma = led an anti-British movement in Kitoor sipahi Sepoy
Question 2: Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of___.
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of___.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of___.
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the___part of India.
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of Plassey.
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of Mysore.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of Lapse.
(d)Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the South-Western part of India.
|Question 4: What attracted European trading companies to India?|
European trading companies ventured across the oceans so as to look for new lands from where they could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe. Indian spices like pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon too were in great demand. Hence, European trading companies were attracted to India.
|Question 5: What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?|
After the death of Aurangzeb, the Bengal nawabs asserted their power and autonomy. Through the eighteenth century, the conflicts between them and the East India Company intensified.
The nawabs refused to grant the Company concessions, demanded large tributes, denied it the right to mint coins, and stopped it from extending its fortifications. They claimed that the Company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue, and also undermining their authority by refusing to pay taxes, writing disrespectful letters, and humiliating them and their officials.
On its part, the Company declared that its trade was getting ruined because of the unjust demands of the local officials. It believed that trade could only flourish if the duties were removed. To expand trade, it wanted to enlarge its settlements, buy up villages, and rebuild its forts
|Question 6: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?|
On being appointed the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal, the East India Company acquired greater power and authority.
It was free to make use of the vast resources of Bengal. Till then, in order to buy goods, it had to import gold and silver from Britain. After the assumption of the Diwani, the Company could use the revenues from Bengal to finance its expenses (which included purchasing cotton and silk textiles in India, maintaining its troops, and building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta).
|Question 7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.|
From 1757 to 1857, the East India Company used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic methods to annex Indian kingdoms.
The subsidiary alliance was one such method. According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. They were to be protected by the Company, and had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company had to maintain for the purpose of protecting them.
If Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. For example, in 1801, the nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the Company for failing to pay for the “subsidiary forces”.
|Question 8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?|
Under the rule of the East India Company, the British territories were divided into administrative units called Presidencies. There were three such Presidencies — Bengal, Madras and Bombay. Each Presidency was ruled by a Governor.
The supreme head was the Governor-General. The principal figure in an Indian district was the Collector whose main job was to collect revenue and taxes, and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas. From 1772, a new system of justice was established.
Under this system, each district had two courts — a criminal court (faujdari adalat) and a civil court (diwani adalat). Maulvis and pandits interpreted Indian laws for the district collectors who presided over civil courts.
The criminal courts were still under a qazi and a mufti, but under the supervision of the collectors. A Supreme Court was established under the Regulating Act of 1773, and a court of appeal (Sadar Nizamat Adalat) was also set up at Calcutta.
|Question 9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.|
During the eighteenth century, when the East India Company began recruitment for its own army, it started recruiting peasants and began training them as professional soldiers. Like the Mughal army, the Company’s army was also composed of the cavalry and the infantry regiments, with the cavalry dominating the army.
However, as warfare technology changed during the nineteenth century, the cavalry requirements of the Company’s army declined. As the soldiers had to be armed with muskets and matchlocks, the infantry regiments became more important.
Question 10: State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century. False
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India. False
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab. True
(d)The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered. False
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